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Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test
출판사 : SPIE Press
저 자 : O'Shea
ISBN : 9780819451712
발행일 : 2003-12
도서종류 : 외국도서
발행언어 : 영어
페이지수 : 260
판매가격 : 69,000원
판매여부 : 재고확인요망
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   Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test 목차
Preface xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Where Do Diffractive Elements Fit in Optics? 1
1.2 A Brief Survey of Diffractive Optics 2
1.3 A Classic Optical Element: The Fresnel Lens 6
1.4 Light Treated as a Propagating Wave 7
1.5 A Physical Optics Element: The Blazed Grating 11
1.6 Fanout Gratings 13
1.6.1 Designing a fanout grating 14
1.7 Constructing the Profile: Optical Lithography 14
1.8 A Theme 15
Chapter 2 Scalar Diffraction Theory 17
2.1 Rayleigh-Sommerfeld Propagation 17
2.2 Fourier Analysis 24
2.2.1 The Dirac delta function 25
2.2.2 The convolution theorem 26
2.3 Using Fourier Analysis 27
2.4 Diffraction Efficiency of Binary Optics 29
2.4.1 The square-wave grating 29
2.4.2 Approximating the blazed grating 31
2.5 Extended Scalar Theory 32
2.6 Conclusion 35
References 35
Chapter 3 Electromagnetic Analysis of Diffractive Optical Elements 37
3.1 Scalar Limitations 37
3.2 Plane-Wave Spectrum Method 39
3.3 Electromagnetic Diffraction Models 44
3.3.1 Modal method 45
3.3.2 Finite-difference time-domain method 50
3.4 Effective Medium Theory 54
References 56
Chapter 4 Diffractive Lens Design 57
4.1 Basics of Lens Design 57
4.1.1 Describing an optical system 57
4.1.2 The lensmaker's equation 59
4.1.3 Chromatic aberration 60
4.1.4 Third-order errors 63
4.1.5 Ray intercept curves 65
4.2 Diffractive Optics Lens Design 66
4.2.1 The diffractive lens 67
4.2.2 The phase profile 68
4.2.3 Generating a single-element design 69
4.2.4 Design of a kinoform lens 69
4.2.5 A simplification 70
4.3 Efficiency of Multilevel Diffractive Lenses 71
4.3.1 At other wavelengths 71
4.3.2 Efficiency of diffractive lenses 73
4.3.3 A diffractive optics lens and its limitations 74
4.4 Hybrid Lenses 75
4.4.1 Correcting chromatic aberration with diffractive surfaces 76
4.4.2 Starting with a singlet 77
4.4.3 Example: diffractive surface on a quartz window 78
4.4.4 Combining refractive and diffractive surfaces 80
References 82
Chapter 5 Design of Diffraction Gratings 83
5.1 Introduction 83
5.1.1 Splitting a wavefront 83
5.1.2 A 1 x 3 grating 84
5.1.3 Complex fanouts 87
5.2 Design Approaches 88
5.3 Design Variables 90
5.4 Direct Inversion 92
5.5 Iterative Design 95
5.5.1 Bidirectional algorithms 96
5.5.2 Simulated annealing 100
5.5.3 Genetic algorithms 105
5.6 Conclusion 111
References 113
Chapter 6 Making a Diffractive Optical Element 115
6.1 The Profile 115
6.2 Photolithography: A Method for DOE Fabrication 116
6.3 From Equation to Component 117
6.3.1 Converting function to form 117
6.3.2 Example: 1 x 2 beamsplitter 118
6.3.3 Mask generation 119
6.4 Interplay between Fabrication and Optical Design 121
6.4.1 Optical functionality 121
6.4.2 Fabrication constraints 121
6.4.3 Effects of thin-film coatings 123
6.4.4 Materials 125
6.5 Facilities and Substrates 125
6.5.1 Clean rooms and DOE fabrication 127
6.5.2 Substrate testing and cleaning 130
6.6 Fabrication of DOEs 131
References 132
Chapter 7 Photolithographic Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements 133
7.1 Photolithographic Processing 133
7.1.1 Photoresist coatings 134
7.1.2 Spin coating photoresist 135
7.1.3 Exposure and development 136
7.1.4 Etching 141
7.2 Binary Optics 143
7.3 Conclusion 147
References 147
Chapter 8 Survey of Fabrication Techniques for Diffractive Optical Elements 149
8.1 Lithographic Techniques 149
8.1.1 Direct writing 149
8.1.2 Interferometric exposure 151
8.1.3 Gray-scale lithography 151
8.1.4 Near-field holography 154
8.1.5 Refractive micro-optics 154
8.2 Direct Machining 156
8.2.1 Mechanical ruling 156
8.2.2 Diamond turning 157
8.2.3 Other methods of direct machining 158
8.3 Replication 159
8.3.1 Plastic injection molding 160
8.3.2 Thermal embossing 160
8.3.3 Casting and UV embossing 160
8.3.4 Soft lithography 161
8.4 Comparison of Fabrication Methods for DOEs 162
References 164
Chapter 9 Testing Diffractive Optical Elements 167
9.1 Metrology 167
9.1.1 Optical microscopy 167
9.1.2 Mechanical profilometry 168
9.1.3 Atomic force microscopy 171
9.1.4 Scanning electron microscopy 171
9.1.5 Phase-shifting interferometry 173
9.2 Testing Optical Performance 174
9.2.1 Scatterometer 175
9.2.2 Charge-coupled device 176
9.2.3 Rotating slit scanners 178
9.2.4 Array testing 179
9.3 Effects of Fabrication Errors on DOE Performance 181
References 184
Chapter 10 Application of Diffractive Optics to Lens Design 187
10.1 Introduction 187
10.1.1 The aberrations of a diffractive lens 187
10.1.2 Adapting optical design for diffractive elements: the Sweatt model 189
10.2 Diffractive Lenses 190
10.2.1 The f - [theta] lens 191
10.2.2 Landscape lens 193
10.2.3 Diffractive telescopes 195
10.2.4 Superzone lenses 197
10.2.5 Staircase lenses 199
10.3 Hybrid Lenses 200
10.3.1 Infrared objectives 201
10.3.2 Infrared telescopes 203
10.3.3 Eyepieces 203
10.4 Thermal Compensation with Diffractive Optics 206
10.4.1 Coefficient of thermal defocus 207
10.4.2 Thermal effects on a mounted lens 207
10.4.3 Hybrid lens and mount 208
References 210
Chapter 11 Additional Applications of Diffractive Optical Elements 213
11.1 Introduction 213
11.2 Multiple Lens Applications 214
11.2.1 Lens arrays for optical coupling 214
11.2.2 Microlenses for beam steering 215
11.2.3 Lens arrays for sensors 216
11.2.4 Beam homogenizers 217
11.3 Beam-Shaping Applications 218
11.3.1 Focusing beam shapers 218
11.3.2 Laser resonator design 220
11.4 Grating Applications 220
11.4.1 Beam deflectors, splitters, and samplers 220
11.4.2 Spot array generators 221
11.4.3 Talbot array illuminators 222
11.4.4 Controlled-angle diffusers 224
11.5 Subwavelength Gratings 225
11.5.1 Anti-reflection surfaces and wavelength filters 226
11.5.2 Wave plates 227
11.5.3 Subwavelength diffraction gratings and lenses 228
11.6 Integration and Modules 229
11.7 Example Application Area: Optical Communications 230
11.7.1 Data communications versus telecommunications 231
11.7.2 Example: parallel hybrid array for data communications 231
11.8 Conclusion 233
References 233
Index 237
   도서 상세설명   

This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Although there are not long derivations or detailed methods for specific engineering calculations, the reader should be familiar and comfortable with basic computational techniques. This text is not a "cookbook" for producing DOEs, but it should provide readers with sufficient information to assess whether this technology would benefit their work, and to understand the requirements for using the concepts and techniques presented by the authors.

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