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String Theory in a Nutshell > 물리학

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String Theory in a Nutshell
판매가격 25,000원
저자 Kiritsis
도서종류 외국도서
출판사 Princeton University Press
발행언어 영어
발행일 2007-03-16
페이지수 608
ISBN 9780691122304
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  • 도서 정보

    도서 상세설명

    Preface xv
    Abbreviations xvii
    Introduction 1
    Prehistory 1
    The Case for String Theory 3
    A Stringy Historical Perspective 6
    Conventions 8
    Bibliography 9
    Classical String Theory 10
    The Point Particle 10
    Relativistic Strings 14
    Oscillator Expansions 20
    Closed strings 20
    Open strings 22
    The Virasoro constraints 24
    Bibliography 26
    Exercises 26
    Quantization of Bosonic Strings 28
    Covariant Canonical Quantization 28
    Light-cone Quantization 31
    Spectrum of the Bosonic String 32
    Unoriented Strings 33
    Open strings and Chan-Paton factors 34
    Path Integral Quantization 37
    Topologically Nontrivial World-sheets 39
    BRST Primer 40
    BRST in String Theory and the Physical Spectrum 42
    Bibliography 46
    Exercises 46
    Conformal Field Theory 49
    Conformal Transformations 49
    The case of two dimensions 51
    Conformally Invariant Field Theory 52
    Radial Quantization 54
    Mode Expansions 57
    The Virasoro Algebra and the Central Charge 58
    The Hilbert Space 59
    The Free Boson 60
    The Free Fermion 63
    The Conformal Anomaly 64
    Representations of the Conformal Algebra 66
    Affine Current Algebras 69
    Free Fermions and O(N) Affine Symmetry 71
    Superconformal Symmetry 77
    N = (1,0)[subscript 2] superconformal symmetry 77
    N = (2,0)[subscript 2] superconformal symmetry 79
    N = (4,0)[subscript 2] superconformal symmetry 81
    Scalars with Background Charge 82
    The CFT of Ghosts 84
    CFT on the Disk 86
    Free massless bosons on the disk 86
    Free massless fermions on the disk 88
    The projective plane 90
    CFT on the Torus 90
    Compact Scalars 93
    Modular invariance 97
    Decompactification 97
    The torus propagator 97
    Marginal deformations 98
    Multiple compact scalars 98
    Enhanced symmetry and the string Brout-Englert-Higgs effect 100
    T-duality 101
    Free Fermions on the Torus 103
    Bosonization 105
    \"Bosonization\" of bosonic ghost system 106
    Orbifolds 107
    CFT on Other Surfaces of Euler Number Zero 112
    CFT on Higher-genus Riemann Surfaces 116
    Bibliography 117
    Exercises 118
    Scattering Amplitudes and Vertex Operators 126
    Physical Vertex Operators 128
    Calculation of Tree-level Tachyon Amplitudes 130
    The closed string 130
    The open string 131
    The One-loop Vacuum Amplitudes 133
    The torus 134
    The cylinder 136
    The Klein bottle 138
    The Mobius strip 138
    Tadpole cancellation 139
    UV structure and UV-IR correspondence 140
    Bibliography 141
    Exercises 142
    Strings in Background Fields 144
    The Nonlinear [sigma]-model Approach 144
    The Quest for Conformal Invariance 147
    Linear Dilaton and Strings in D < 26 Dimensions 149
    T-duality in Nontrivial Backgrounds 151
    Bibliography 151
    Exercises 152
    Superstrings and Supersymmetry 155
    N = (1,1)[subscript 2] World-sheet Superconformal Symmetry 155
    Closed (Type-II) Superstrings 157
    Massless R-R states 159
    Type-I Superstrings 162
    Heterotic Superstrings 165
    Superstring Vertex Operators 168
    One-loop Superstring Vacuum Amplitudes 170
    The type-IIA/B superstring 170
    The heterotic superstring 171
    The type-I superstring 171
    Closed Superstrings and T-duality 174
    The type-II string theories 174
    The heterotic string 175
    Supersymmetric Effective Actions 175
    Anomalies 176
    Bibliography 182
    Exercises 183
    D-branes 187
    Antisymmetric Tensors and p-branes 187
    Open Strings and T-duality 188
    D-branes 191
    D-branes and R-R Charges 193
    D-instantons 196
    D-brane Effective Actions 197
    The Dirac-Born-Infeld action 197
    Anomaly-related terms 199
    Multiple Branes and Nonabelian Symmetry 200
    T-duality and Orientifolds 201
    D-branes as Supergravity Solitons 205
    The supergravity solutions 205
    Horizons and singularities 207
    The extremal branes and their near-horizon geometry 208
    NS[subscript 5]-branes 211
    Bibliography 213
    Exercises 213
    Compactifications and Supersymmetry Breaking 219
    Narain Compactifications 219
    World-sheet versus Space-time Supersymmetry 223
    N = 1[subscript 4] space-time supersymmetry 225
    N = 2[subscript 4] space-time supersymmetry 226
    Orbifold Reduction of Supersymmetry 228
    A Heterotic Orbifold with N = 2[subscript 4] Supersymmetry 231
    Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking 235
    A Heterotic N = 1[subscript 4] Orbifold and Chirality in Four Dimensions 237
    Calabi-Yau Manifolds 239
    Holonomy 241
    Consequences of SU(3) holonomy 242
    The CY moduli space 243
    N = 1[subscript 4] Heterotic Compactifications 245
    The low-energy N = 1[subscript 4] heterotic spectrum 246
    K3 Compactification of the Type-II String 247
    N = 2[subscript 6] Orbifolds of the Type-II String 250
    CY Compactifications of Type-II Strings 252
    Mirror Symmetry 253
    Absence of Continuous Global Symmetries 255
    Orientifolds 256
    K3 orientifolds 257
    The Klein bottle amplitude 258
    D-branes on T[superscript 4]/Z[subscript 2] 260
    The cylinder amplitude 263
    The Mobius strip amplitude 265
    Tadpole cancellation 266
    The open string spectrum 267
    D-branes at Orbifold Singularities 268
    Magnetized Compactifications and Intersecting Branes 271
    Open strings in an internal magnetic field 272
    Intersecting branes 277
    Intersecting D[subscript 6]-branes 278
    Where is the Standard Model? 280
    The heterotic string 280
    Type-II string theory 282
    The type-I string 283
    Unification 284
    Bibliography 286
    Exercises 287
    Loop Corrections to String Effective Couplings 294
    Calculation of Heterotic Gauge Thresholds 296
    On-shell Infrared Regularization 301
    Evaluation of the threshold 303
    Heterotic Gravitational Thresholds 304
    One-loop Fayet-Iliopoulos Terms 305
    N = 1,2[subscript 4] Examples of Threshold Corrections 309
    N = 2[subscript 4] Universality of Thresholds 312
    Unification Revisited 315
    Bibliography 317
    Exercises 317
    Duality Connections and Nonperturbative Effects 320
    Perturbative Connections 322
    BPS States and BPS Bounds 323
    Nonrenormalization Theorems and BPS-saturated Couplings 325
    Type-IIA versus M-theory 328
    Self-duality of the Type-IIB String 331
    U-duality of Type-Il String Theory 334
    U-duality and bound states 335
    Heterotic/Type I Duality in Ten Dimensions 336
    The type-I D[subscript 1]-string 339
    The type-I D[subscript 5]-brane 341
    Further consistency checks 343
    M-theory and the E[subscript 8] x E[subscript 8] Heterotic String 344
    Unification at strong heterotic coupling 347
    Heterotic/Type II Duality in Six Dimensions 348
    Gauge symmetry enhancement and singular K3 surfaces 352
    Heterotic/type II duality in four dimensions 355
    Conifold Singularities and Conifold Transitions 356
    Bibliography 362
    Exercises 363
    Black Holes and Entropy in String Theory 369
    A Brief History 369
    The Strategy 369
    Black-hole Thermodynamics 371
    The Euclidean continuation 372
    Hawking evaporation and greybody factors 374
    The Information Problem and the Holographic Hypothesis 375
    Five-dimensional Extremal Charged Black Holes 377
    Five-dimensional Nonextremal RN Black Holes 379
    The Near-horizon Region 381
    Semiclassical Derivation of the Hawking Rate 383
    The Microscopic Realization 386
    The world-volume theory of the bound state 387
    The low-energy SCFT of the D[subscript 1]-D[subscript 5] bound state 389
    Microscopic calculation of the entropy 391
    Microscopic derivation of Hawking evaporation rates 394
    Epilogue 396
    Bibliography 398
    Exercises 399
    The Bulk/Boundary Correspondence 403
    Large-N Gauge Theories and String Theory 405
    The Decoupling Principle 408
    The Near-horizon Limit 409
    Elements of the Correspondence 410
    Bulk Fields and Boundary Operators 413
    Holography 416
    Testing the AdS[subscript 5]/CFT[subscript 4] Correspondence 417
    The chiral spectrum of N = 4 gauge theory 418
    Matching to the string theory spectrum 420
    N = 8 five-dimensional gauged supergravity 422
    Protected correlation functions and anomalies 422
    Correlation Functions 424
    Two-point functions 425
    Three-point functions 427
    The gravitational action and the conformal anomaly 428
    Wilson Loops 433
    AdS[subscript 5]/CFT[subscript 4] Correspondence at Finite Temperature 436
    N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature 436
    The near-horizon limit of black D[subscript 3]-branes 438
    Finite-volume and large-N phase transitions 440
    Thermal holographic physics 443
    Spatial Wilson loops in (a version of) QCD[subscript 3] 444
    The glueball mass spectrum 446
    AdS[subscript 3]/CFT[subscript 2] Correspondence 447
    The greybody factors revisited 450
    The Holographic Renormalization Group 450
    Perturbations of the CFT[subscript 4] 451
    Domain walls and flow equations 452
    A RG flow preserving N = 1 supersymmetry 454
    The Randall-Sundrum Geometry 456
    An alternative to compactification 459
    Bibliography 462
    Exercises 463
    String Theory and Matrix Models 470
    M(atrix) Theory 471
    Membrane quantization 471
    Type-IIA D[subscript 0]-branes and DLCQ 473
    Gravitons and branes in M(atrix) theory 476
    The two-graviton interaction from M(atrix) theory 477
    Matrix Models and D = 1 Bosonic String Theory 479
    The continuum limit 481
    Solving the matrix model 482
    The double-scaling limit 485
    The free-fermion picture 487
    Matrix Description of D = 2 String Theory 488
    Matrix quantum mechanics and free fermions on the line 490
    The continuum limit 492
    The double-scaling limit 494
    D-particles, tachyons, and holography 496
    Bibliography 498
    Exercises 498
    Two-dimensional Complex Geometry 503
    Differential Forms 505
    Theta and Other Elliptic Functions 507
    [theta] and Related Functions 507
    The Weierstrass Function 510
    Modular Forms 510
    Poisson Resummation 512
    Toroidal Lattice Sums 513
    Toroidal Kaluza-Klein Reduction 516
    The Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole 519
    Electric-magnetic Duality in D = 4 522
    Supersymmetric Actions in Ten and Eleven Dimensions 525
    The N = 1[subscript 11] Supergravity 526
    Type-IIA Supergravity 527
    Type-IIB Supergravity 528
    Type-II Supergravities: The Democratic Formulation 529
    N = 1[subscript 10] Supersymmetry 530
    N = 1,2, Four-dimensional Supergravity Coupled to Matter 533
    N = 1[subscript 4] Supergravity 533
    N = 2[subscript 4] Supergravity 535
    BPS Multiplets in Four Dimensions 537
    The Geometry of Anti-de Sitter Space 541
    The Minkowski Signature AdS 541
    Euclidean AdS 544
    The Conformal Structure of Flat Space 546
    Fields in AdS 548
    The wave equation in Poincare coordinates 549
    The bulk-boundary propagator 550
    The bulk-to-bulk propagator 551
    Bibliography 553
    Index 575
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