Hydrology Defined. The Hydrologic Cycle. The Hydrologic Budget. Hydrologic Models. Applications.
2. Hydrologic Measurements and Data Sources.
Units Of Measurement. Hydrologic Data. Hydrologic Measurements. Data Networks and Telemetry. Urban Runoff Monitoring. Groundwater Monitoring. National Water Data Exchange.
3. Statistical Methods In Hydrology.
Random Variables and Statistics. Probability Distributions. Distribution Statistics. Probability Applications: Frequency and Return Period. Types of Probability Distribution Functions. Continuous Probability Distribution Functions. Frequency Analysis. Flow Duration Analysis. Linear Regression and Correlation.
Water Vapor. Precipitation. Distribution of Precipitation. Point Precipitation. Areal Precipitation. Probable Maximum Precipitation. Gross and Net Precipitation. Precipitation Frequency Analysis. Snow Accumulation.
5. Interception and Depression Storage.
Interception. Throughfall. Depression Storage.
6. Evaporation and Transpiration.
Evaporation. Estimating Evaporation. Evaporation Control. Transpiration. Transpiration Control. Evapotranspiration. Estimating Evapotranspiration.
Measuring Infiltration. Calculation of Infiltration. Horton\'s Infiltration Model. Green-Ampt Model. Huggins-Monke Model. Holtan Model. Recovery of Infiltration Capacity. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Infiltration Capacity. SCS Runoff Curve Number Procedure. PHI Index.
8. Surface Water Hydrology.
Streamflow. Runoff. Floods and Droughts. Snowmelt Hydrology.
Hydrograph Components. Hydrograph Time Relationships. Unit Hydrographs. Synthetic Unit Hydrographs. Hydrograph Routing.
10. Groundwater Hydrology.
Introduction. Groundwater Flow. Flow to Wells. Saltwater Intrusion. Groundwater Basin Development. Regional Groundwater Models. Joint Surface-Water-Groundwater Systems.
11. Urban Hydrology.
Approaches to Urban Hydrology. Effects of Urbanization on Runoff. Peak Flow Methods for Urban Areas. Urban Hydrograph Methods and Models. Vendor-Developed Urban Stormwater Software.
12. Hydrologic Simulation and Streamflow Synthesis.
Hydrologic Simulation Overview. Single-Event Rainfall-Runoff Models. Continuous Simulation Models. Groundwater Flow Simulation Models. Streamflow Synthesis.
13. Hydrology in Design.
Hydraulic Structure Design Methods. Hydrologic Design Data. Hydrologic Design Standards and Criteria. Synthesizing Design Storms. Urban Storm Drainage Design. Airport Drainage Design. Detention Storage Design.
Forewords & Introductions
Given the burgeoning interest in environmental issues, it is believed that course offerings in hydrology will expand nationwide and that the need for contemporary elementary textbooks on the subject will increase. This fifth edition of Introduction to Hydrology has been redesigned to play an important role in meeting that need.
Water scientists and engineers of tomorrow must be equipped to deal with a diversity of issues such as the design and operation of data retrieval and storage systems; forecasting; developing alternative water use futures; estimating water requirements for natural systems; exploring the impacts of climate change; developing more efficient systems for applying water in all water-using sectors; and analyzing and designing water management systems incorporating technical, economic, environmental, social, legal, and political elements. A knowledge of hydrologic principles is a requisite for dealing with such issues.
In the early years of the twentieth century, water resources development and management were focused almost exclusively on water supply and flood control. Today, these issues are still important, but environmental protection, ensuring safe drinking water, and providing aesthetic and recreational experiences compete equally for attention and funds. Furthermore, an environmentally conscious public is pressing for greater reliance on improved management practices, with fewer structural components, to solve the nation\'s water problems. The notion of continually striving to provide more beater has been replaced by one of husbanding this precious natural resource.
There is a growing constituency for allocating water for the benefit of fishand wildlife, for protection of marshes and estuary areas, and for other natural system uses. But estimating the quantities of water needed for environmental protection and for maintaining and/or restoring natural systems is difficult. Scientific data are sparse, and our understanding of the complex interactions inherent in ecosystems of all scales is rudimentary. And this is a critical issue, since the quantities of water involved in environmental protection can be substantial, and competition for these waters from traditional water users is keen. The nations of the world. are facing major decisions regarding natural systems, decisions that are laden with significant economic and social impacts. Thus there is an urgency associated with developing a better understanding of ecologic systems and of their hydrologic components.
The fifth edition has been rewritten to acquaint future water scientists and managers with the basic elements of the hydrologic cycle. It reviews data sources, introduces statistical analyses in the context of hydrologic problem-solving, covers the components of the hydrologic budget, discusses hydrograph analysis and routing, and introduces groundwater hydrology, urban hydrology, hydrologic models, and hydrologic design. The book is designed to meet the needs of students who expect to become involved in programs that are concerned with the development, management, and protection of water resources. Many solved examples and problems serve to amplify the concepts presented in the text. Many appropriate Internet addresses are provided.
Numerous sources have been drawn upon to provide subject matter for the book, and the authors hope that suitable acknowledgment has been given to them. The authors also thank the following reviewers: Istvan Bogardi, Meteoroligia, Hungary; Praveen Kumar, University of Illinois; David B. Thompson, University of Texas; and Jose D. Salas, Colorado State University. Colleagues and students are also recognized for their helpful comments and reviews.
WARREN VIESSMAN, JR.
GARY L. LEWIS