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# A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: SI Version,6/Ed > 유체역학

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A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics: SI Version,6/Ed
추천도서히트도서
판매가격 49,000원
저자 Donald F. Young, Bruce R. Munson 외국도서 Wiley-Blackwell 영어 2022 608 9781119611714 주문시 결제 온, 오프라인 서점에서 구매 하실 수 있습니다.

## DESCRIPTION

This book is designed to cover the standard topics in a basic fluid mechanics course in a streamlined manner that meets the learning needs of students better than the dense, encyclopedic format of traditional texts. This approach helps students connect math and theory to the physical world and apply these connections to solving problems. The text lucidly presents basic analysis techniques and addresses practical concerns and applications, such as pipe flow, open-channel flow, flow measurement, and drag and lift. It offers a strong visual approach with photos, illustrations, and videos included in the text, examples, and homework problems to emphasize the practical application of fluid mechanics principles.

Introduction 1

Learning Objectives 1

1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3

1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 3

1.2.1 Systems of Units 6

1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 9

1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 9

1.4.1 Density 9

1.4.2 Specific Weight 10

1.4.3 Specific Gravity 10

1.5 Ideal Gas Law 11

1.6 Viscosity 12

1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 17

1.7.1 Bulk Modulus 17

1.7.2 Compression and Expansion of Gases 18

1.7.3 Speed of Sound 19

1.8 Vapor Pressure 21

1.9 Surface Tension 21

1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 24

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 27

Review Problems 28

Problems 28

Fluid Statics 32

Learning Objectives 35

2.1 Pressure at a Point 35

2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 36

2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 38

2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid 39

2.3.2 Compressible Fluid 42

2.4 Standard Atmosphere 43

2.5 Measurement of Pressure 45

2.6 Manometry 47

2.6.1 Piezometer Tube 47

2.6.2 U-Tube Manometer 48

2.6.3 Inclined-Tube Manometer 50

2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 51

2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 54

2.9 Pressure Prism 60

2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 63

2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 65

2.11.1 Archimedes’ Principle 65

2.11.2 Stability 68

2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 70

2.12.1 Linear Motion 70

2.12.2 Rigid-Body Rotation 72

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 74

References 75

Elementary Fluid Dynamics—The Bernoulli Equation 76

Learning Objectives 76

3.1 Newton’s Second Law 76

3.2 F = ma along a Streamline 79

3.3 F = ma Normal to a Streamline 83

3.4 Physical Interpretations and Alternate Forms of the Bernoulli Equation 85

3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 88

3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 93

3.6.1 Free Jets 93

3.6.2 Confined Flows 96

3.6.3 Flowrate Measurement 102

3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 106

3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 109

3.8.1 Compressibility Effects 109

3.8.3 Rotational Effects 111

3.8.4 Other Restrictions 112

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 113

References 114

Fluid Kinematics 115

Learning Objectives 115

4.1 The Velocity Field 115

4.1.1 Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions 118

4.1.2 One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 119

4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 120

4.2 The Acceleration Field 124

4.2.1 Acceleration and the Material Derivative 124

4.2.3 Convective Effects 127

4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates 130

4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 132

4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 134

4.4.1 Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem 136

4.4.2 Physical Interpretation 141

4.4.3 Relationship to Material Derivative 141

4.4.6 Moving Control Volumes 143

4.4.7 Selection of a Control Volume 145

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 145

References 146

Finite Control Volume Analysis 147

Learning Objectives 147

5.1 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation 148

5.1.1 Derivation of the Continuity Equation 148

5.1.2 Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume 150

5.1.3 Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume 156

5.1.4 Deforming Control Volume 158

5.2 Newton’s Second Law—The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 160

5.2.1 Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation 160

5.2.2 Application of the Linear Momentum Equation 161

5.2.3 Derivation of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 174

5.2.4 Application of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 176

5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics—The Energy Equation 182

5.3.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 182

5.3.2 Application of the Energy Equation 185

5.3.3 The Mechanical Energy Equation and the Bernoulli Equation 189

5.3.4 Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows 195

5.3.5 Comparison of Various Forms of the Energy Equation 197

5.3.6 Combination of the Energy Equation and the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 199

5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics—Irreversible Flow 200

5.4.1 Semi-infinitesimal Control Volume Statement of the Energy Equation 200

5.4.2 Semi-infinitesimal Control Volume Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 201

5.4.3 Combination of the Equations of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 202

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 203

References 204

Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 205

Learning Objectives 205

6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 206

6.1.1 Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited 206

6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation 207

6.1.3 Angular Motion and Deformation 208

6.2 Conservation of Mass 211

6.2.1 Differential Form of Continuity Equation 211

6.2.2 Cylindrical Polar Coordinates 214

6.2.3 The Stream Function 214

6.3 The Linear Momentum Equation 217

6.3.1 Description of Forces Acting on the Differential Element 218

6.3.2 Equations of Motion 220

6.4 Inviscid Flow 221

6.4.1 Euler’s Equations of Motion 221

6.4.2 The Bernoulli Equation 222

6.4.3 Irrotational Flow 223

6.4.4 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 225

6.4.5 The Velocity Potential 226

6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 228

6.5.1 Uniform Flow 230

6.5.2 Source and Sink 230

6.5.3 Vortex 232

6.5.4 Doublet 235

6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 237

6.6.1 Source in a Uniform Stream—Half-Body 237

6.6.2 Rankine Ovals 240

6.6.3 Flow Around a Circular Cylinder 242

6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 248

6.8 Viscous Flow 248

6.8.1 Stress–Deformation Relationships 249

6.8.2 The Navier–Stokes Equations 249

6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Laminar, Viscous, Incompressible Flows 251

6.9.1 Steady, Laminar Flow Between Fixed Parallel Plates 251

6.9.2 Couette Flow 253

6.9.3 Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes 255

6.9.4 Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow in an Annulus 258

6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 260

6.10.1 Numerical Methods 260

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 261

References 262

Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling 263

Learning Objectives 263

7.1 The Need for Dimensional Analysis 264

7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 266

7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 267

7.4.1 Selection of Variables 273

7.4.2 Determination of Reference Dimensions 274

7.4.3 Uniqueness of Pi Terms 276

7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 276

7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 278

7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 283

7.7.1 Problems with One Pi Term 283

7.7.2 Problems with Two or More Pi Terms 284

7.8 Modeling and Similitude 286

7.8.1 Theory of Models 287

7.8.2 Model Scales 290

7.8.3 Practical Aspects of Using Models 291

7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 293

7.9.1 Flow Through Closed Conduits 293

7.9.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies 295

7.9.3 Flow with a Free Surface 299

7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 302

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 305

References 306

Viscous Flow in Pipes 307

Learning Objectives 307

8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 308

8.1.1 Laminar or Turbulent Flow 309

8.1.2 Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 311

8.1.3 Pressure and Shear Stress 312

8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 313

8.2.1 From F = ma Applied Directly to a Fluid Element 314

8.2.2 From the Navier–Stokes Equations 318

8.2.3 From Dimensional Analysis 319

8.2.4 Energy Considerations 320

8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 322

8.3.1 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 322

8.3.2 Turbulent Shear Stress 324

8.3.3 Turbulent Velocity Profile 329

8.3.4 Turbulence Modeling 332

8.3.5 Chaos and Turbulence 333

8.4 Pipe Flow Losses via Dimensional Analysis 333

8.4.1 Major Losses 333

8.4.2 Minor Losses 339

8.4.3 Noncircular Conduits 348

8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 351

8.5.1 Single Pipes 351

8.5.2 Multiple Pipe Systems 360

8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 364

8.6.1 Pipe Flowrate Meters 364

8.6.2 Volume Flowmeters 369

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 370

References 372

Flow over Immersed Bodies 373

Learning Objectives 373

9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 374

9.1.1 Lift and Drag Concepts 375

9.1.2 Characteristics of Flow Past an Object 378

9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 382

9.2.1 Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate 382

9.2.2 Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution 385

9.2.3 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate 389

9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 394

9.2.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 396

9.2.6 Effects of Pressure Gradient 399

9.2.7 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation with Nonzero Pressure Gradient 404

9.3 Drag 405

9.3.1 Friction Drag 405

9.3.2 Pressure Drag 407

9.3.3 Drag Coefficient Data and Examples 409

9.4 Lift 422

9.4.1 Surface Pressure Distribution 424

9.4.2 Circulation 429

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 434

References 435

10 Open-Channel Flow 437

Learning Objectives 437

10.1 General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 437

10.2 Surface Waves 439

10.2.1 Wave Speed 439

10.2.2 Froude Number Effects 442

10.3 Energy Considerations 444

10.3.1 Energy Balance 444

10.3.2 Specific Energy 445

10.4 Uniform Flow 448

10.4.1 Uniform Flow Approximations 448

10.4.2 The Chezy and Manning Equations 449

10.4.3 Uniform Flow Examples 451

10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 458

10.6.1 The Hydraulic Jump 460

10.6.2 Sharp-Crested Weirs 464

10.6.4 Underflow (Sluice) Gates 470

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 471

References 472

11 Compressible Flow 473

Learning Objectives 473

11.1 Ideal Gas Thermodynamics 474

11.2 Stagnation Properties 479

11.3 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 480

11.4 Compressible Flow Regimes 485

11.5 Shock Waves 489

11.5.1 Normal Shock 489

11.6 Isentropic Flow 495

11.6.1 Steady Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 495

11.6.2 Incompressible Flow and the Bernoulli Equation 498

11.6.3 The Critical State 500

11.7 One-Dimensional Flow in a Variable Area Duct 500

11.7.1 General Considerations 501

11.7.2 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas with Area Change 504

11.7.3 Operation of a Converging Nozzle 510

11.7.4 Operation of a Converging–Diverging Nozzle 512

11.8 Constant-Area Duct Flow with Friction 516

11.8.1 Preliminary Consideration: Comparison with Incompressible Duct Flow 516

11.8.2 The Fanno Line 517

11.8.3 Adiabatic Frictional Flow (Fanno Flow) of an Ideal Gas 520

11.9 Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Heating or Cooling 528

11.9.1 The Rayleigh Line 528

11.9.2 Frictionless Flow of an Ideal Gas with Heating or Cooling (Rayleigh Flow) 531

11.9.3 Rayleigh Lines, Fanno Lines, and Normal Shocks 534

11.10 Analogy Between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 535

11.11 Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow 536

11.12 Effects of Compressibility in External Flow 538

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541

References 544

12 Turbomachines 545

Learning Objectives 545

12.1 Introduction 546

12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 547

12.3 Angular Momentum Considerations 551

12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 553

12.4.1 Theoretical Considerations 554

12.4.2 Pump Performance Characteristics 558

12.4.3 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 560

12.4.4 System Characteristics, Pump-System Matching, and Pump Selection 562

12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 566

12.5.1 Special Pump Scaling Laws 568

12.5.2 Specific Speed 569

12.5.3 Suction Specific Speed 570

12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 571

12.7 Fans 573

12.8 Turbines 574

12.8.1 Impulse Turbines 575

12.8.2 Reaction Turbines 582

12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 585

12.9.1 Compressors 585

12.9.2 Compressible Flow Turbines 589

Chapter Summary and Study Guide 591

References 593

Appendix A Computational Fluid Dynamics 594

Appendix B Physical Properties of Fluids 613

Appendix C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 618

Appendix D Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with = 1.4 620

Appendix E Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors 628

Questions, Problems, And Reserve Problems 635

Index I-1

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